Why does the medical world feared H3N2 S-OTR?

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World Press and Vietnam again caused a stir and organizational control disease prevention (CDC) confirmed three more American young people in Iowa mutate flu virus infects a new A (H3N2) derived from pig . As from January 8.2011, the CDC has recorded 12 cases scattered in five northeastern states of the United States. The samples after the tests to detect genetic decoding in the variable new strains of genetic reassortment between H3N2 is circulating in pigs in the United States with M genes of H1N1 pandemic strain in 2009, is S-OTR called H3N2 (swine-origin H3N2 triple reassortant).

Why does the medical world feared H3N2 S-OTR?

Influenza A viruses, including subtypes (subtypes) based on a combination of two proteins, hemagglutinin (H) and Neuraminidase (N). . There are 16 H antigens and nine antigen N.  In nature, each H and N antigens are often distributed in a certain species of animals.  Currently only three H antigen subtypes (H1, H2, H3) and two subtypes N antigens (N1, N2) is regularly circulated in humans. The other subtypes found mostly in animals. Wild birds are natural hosts of the virus.

The most important characteristics of the virus is likely to change frequently antigenic structure through the phenomenon of mutation and genetic recombination.  Meanwhile, strains "new" would escape recognition by the immune system, easily cause major outbreaks and high mortality risk to the community without resistance. History has proven each pandemics were caused by a new virus appears to mutate.

Back at the North American case, which flu strains are circulating in pigs rarely causes human disease.  Since 2005, only 35 cases reported in the United States, but production levels have increased in 2011.  When different strains co-infection in a host body, the genetic material can exchange and create a new strain variables.

At the conference Fourth European Influenza held in Malta (May 9.2011), a scientific discovery has been global shocked Dr. Ron Fouchier and colleagues at Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam (Netherlands) announced . In the laboratory, they have successfully tested the mutant strains caused by H5N1 virus introduced directly into the respiratory tract to cause infection experiment repeated on civet.  With only five through ten mutant virus experimental phase, they have gained new H5N1 strain can spread easily through the airways from civet to others. Biologically, this means the ability to spread from person - people with respiratory!

A similar result was also published later by Ruben O. Donis and colleagues from the CDC Atlanta, USA mutagenic when carrying sialic acid receptors on antigen H and N antigens on the H5N1 virus.

H5N1 threat there

H5N1 bird flu virus circulating in migratory birds, infected poultry, but no symptoms (especially in species of aquatic birds).  Due to different antigenic structure should only pathogenic H5N1 virus for some people with close contact (slaughter poultry diseases) and not be able to spread from person to person. Diseases caused by H5N1 in humans begins with the outbreak in 1997 in Hong Kong. Up to date 08/02/2012, the world's total was 584 cases with 345 deaths (59%). In Vietnam, since the first cases detected in the hospital as soon 11/01/2004 tropical disease, now has a total of 121 cases (the third highest in the world after Indonesia and Egypt), 61 deaths ( 50%).  After nearly two years absence from the H5N1 Swine Flu, the health ministry announced two deaths from H5N1 in January 1.2012 in Kien Giang and Soc Trang.  Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development is published on the H5N1 poultry in the provinces of Thanh Hoa, Ha Nam, Hai Duong, Quang Tri, Soc Trang and Kien Giang.

As translated in poultry, the risk of H5N1 infection when exposed and not protected very high and the cases will continue to happen ...

Worst case scenario and how to deal

When infected people continue to have variable influenza virus strains circulating in human capital (such as avian influenza H5N1, H3N2 swine flu ...), viral conditions regular exercise over how to penetrate the human body, the ability to turn adaptive genetic change will have many opportunities to occur and to a certain time, a new varieties with the ability to spread from person - who will appear (this time in natural conditions, repeat the process "of make " was successful in the lab)!

Imagine a new pandemic scenario for the appearance of a human influenza virus can mutate damage the strength of the H5N1 (mortality 50%) combined with the ability to spread from person - person via the respiratory tract of H1N1 each 2009 pandemic (worldwide spread in just three months)!

Before a flu pandemic threat is happening in the future, the medical community should be prepared for questions: when would appear? Any complications? Responding to like? ...

First of all, have solved the bird flu. Spread to humans by blocking the implementation of biosecurity measures in animal husbandry, food processing line clean. Implementation of effective vaccination for poultry and humans. Monitoring, detection and early treatment of cases to be dispersed in the community.

Hopefully, mankind continues to win the race for survival with competing microbial world, which took place millions of years and continues increasingly fierce.

flu virus mutation evolution h5n1 bird flu avian flu h1n1 h3n2 H3N2 S-OTR

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